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Tuesday, July 28, 2020 | History

2 edition of Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids. found in the catalog.

Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids.

Angela Jane Risebrow

Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids.

by Angela Jane Risebrow

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  • 4 Currently reading

Published by University of East anglia in Norwich .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.), University of East Anglia, School of Biological Sciences, 1986.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14508762M

Aphids are among the most severe invertebrate pests of crops and cause high economic losses. The control of aphids by natural enemies is an essential ecosystem service with high relevance to management strategies applied in agricultural plant production and horticulture. However, the current knowledge on the effectiveness of specialist and generalist predators in aphid control with respect . Corpus ID: Attraction to odour of infested plants and learning behaviour in the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis @inproceedings{MlckAttractionTO, title={Attraction to odour of infested plants and learning behaviour in the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis}, author={Gunnar M{\"o}lck and Stephan G. Micha and Urs Wyss}, year={} }.

Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily names include greenfly and blackfly, although individuals within a species can vary widely in colour. The group includes the fluffy white woolly aphids.A typical life cycle involves flightless females giving living birth to female nymphs—who may also be already pregnant, an adaptation scientists call. (). Chemically mediated tritrophic interactions: opposing effects of glucosinolates on a specialist herbivore and its predators. (). Differences in larval feeding behavior correlate with altered developmental strategies in two parasitic wasps: implications for the size-fitness hypothesis. Oikos – ().

  Aphid predators and parasitoids may further be classified into generalists or specialists. Generalists have a broad range of prey. Most aphid predators are generalists. Specialists prey only on a specific kind of prey organism. Most parasitoids specialize on a certain type of aphid. Generalist aphid predators. While many species consume aphids. but there may be evidence that the generalist or specialist feeding strategy are a more ideal strategy. This paper will examine both anecdotal and direct evidence exploring insect feeding behavior and the evolutionary steps necessitated by specialist feeding strategies.


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Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids by Angela Jane Risebrow Download PDF EPUB FB2

Journals & Books; Help Thus, generalist whitefly feeding strategies appear to benefit the whiteflies at the expense of plant defense. of the generalist potato aphid on tomato discussed above, we advocate a critical comparison of plant responses to generalist versus specialist by: Overall, feeding on virus-infected host plants by specialist and generalist aphids was affected in different ways but all three viruses induced similar effects on each aphid type.

Specifically, non-specialist (M. persicae) aphids encountered increased stylet difficulties on plants infected with BCMV, BCMNV, or CMV, whereas specialist aphids (A Cited by: 1. Generalist feeding strategies and omnivory are well-known in the food web literature (e.g.

Gilljam et al., ; Woodward et al., a).Therefore, a quantification of the degree of redundancy within food webs, either as interspecific or intraspecific (if at different life stages) differences in trophic position and diet, is crucial for B–EF modelling. Omnivores are usually generalists.

Herbivores are often specialists, but those that eat a variety of plants may be considered generalists. A well-known example of a specialist animal is the Monophagous koala, which subsists almost entirely on eucalyptus leaves. The raccoon is a generalist because it has a natural range that includes most of North and Central America, and it is omnivorous.

Overall, feeding on virus-infected host plants by specialist and generalist aphids was affected in different ways but all three viruses induced similar effects on each aphid type.

Specifically. generalists benefit from feeding on toxic plants, even if they do not sequester the toxins [59]. Table 1. Comparison of plant defensive response to at Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids. book one specialist and one generalist insect herbivore from the same feeding guild Plant Generalist Specialist Measure of plant response Resultsa (Brassicaceae) A.

thaliana (Aphididae) Myzus. Effects of natural enemies were weaker on aphid populations feeding on legumes com-pared with aphids on grasses or herbs. The percentage reduction of aphids feeding on grasses, herbs or legumes was higher in treatments with assemblages or specialists alone compared with generalists with the largest difference on grasses.

Black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (Homoptera; Aphididae) is a serious pest causing crop loss. Plant-aphid interaction is a dynamic system subjected to continual variation and changes. Host plants induce various biochemical and physical defense mechanisms due to aphid feeding.

Aphids can overcome plant defenses by enzymatic adaptations and sequestering secondary metabolites produced by the plant. Host foraging for differentially adapted Brassica-feeding aphids by the Braconid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Plant Signaling & Behavior: Vol.

3, No. 8, pp. Diaeretiella rapae, a parasitoid that predominately specializes in the parasitism of Brassica-feeding aphids, attacks Lipaphis erysimi, a specialist feeding aphid of the Brassicaceae and other families in the Capparales, at a greater rate than the generalist-feeding aphid, Myzus persicae.

In this study, we investigated the orientation behavior of D. rapae to the volatile chemicals produced. Specialist and generalist feeding strategies in aphids Author: Risebrow, A.

ISNI: Awarding Body: University of East Anglia Current Institution: University of East Anglia Date of Award: Availability of Full Text: Full text unavailable from EThOS.

Specialist versus generalist insect herbivores and plant defense Þnd few consistencies in plant induction by specialists versus generalists, feeding guilds are predictive of dif-ferential plant responses. We outline a novel set of such as aphids, leaf hoppers and leaf miners are dominated (>75%) by monophages [71].

Generalists vs. Specialists (and the Specialist’s Dilemma) Max Business, Innovation, Investing J June 5, 3 Minutes In December of last year, I gave a presentation to a group of investors on the mental models of robustness and generalist/specialist species.

phids are sap-feeding insects that emerge early in the spring. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and in many cases can carry and spread plant diseases. Aphids can be small, like the green peach aphid, to quite large, like the conifer aphid. The color of the various aphid species is diverse and includes black, green, red, and yellow.

Nevertheless, the evolution of specialist–generalist strategies seems to be highly dynamic and may play important roles in species diversification [5–7]. We use the terms specialist versus generalist to refer to life-history traits relating to some key resource that is expected to constrain long-term population size.

enemies. Many strategies were developed and evolved by aphids in order to overcome plant defense barriers which allowed them to feed, grow and reproduce on their host plants. This study aimed to aid in better understanding of the effect of altering host plant on specialist and generalist aphid influence of plant.

Landscape context on generalist and specialist aphid natural enemies B. Caballero-López 1, R. Bommarco 2, J. Blanco-Moreno 1, F. Sans 1, J. Pujade-Villar 3 & H. Smith 4. Sharp differences in feeding behaviour were detected between the susceptible and the moderately resistant neonicotinoid‐resistant aphid populations.

The EPG technique can be used as a useful tool to give new insights into the functional effects of new chemical compounds and for early detection of low to moderate levels of resistance of sap.

Effects of natural enemies were weaker on aphid populations feeding on legumes compared with aphids on grasses or herbs. The percentage reduction of aphids feeding on grasses, herbs or legumes was higher in treatments with assemblages or specialists alone compared with generalists with the largest difference on grasses.

Host selection by generalist and specialist aphids 45 M. persicae nicotianae. These numbers of replicates were sufficient to quantitatively account for the clear trends exhibited by the two taxa. Host selection within each aphid taxon was assessed by comparing proportions of aphids on host and non-host plants with a Wilcoxon signed-ranks.

Lower feeding activity of specialists will reduce their exposure to predators (e.g. Bernays et al., ), and thus should decrease the effect of predation.

In conclusion, our study shows that the feeding strategies of cursorial generalist and obligatory specialist spiders are different.Entomologist classified the plant feeding insect into two categories such as generalist and specialist according to the mode of host plant use by them. Generalist insect can be defined those insect which use use wide range of plant species as their host, whereas the specialist insect using a specified range of host plants in their life stages.We investigated how specialist and generalist natural enemies differ as biological control agents of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), and how interactions among natural enemies affect successful control.

pea aphids are attacked by a specialist parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi, and a guild of generalist predators primarily made up of Nabis.